京都大学大学院アジア・アフリカ地域研究研究科 COSER Center for On-Site Education and Research 附属次世代型アジア・アフリカ教育研究センター
京都大学大学院アジア・アフリカ地域研究研究科
フィールドワーク・レポート

Caring Bodies in Mobility: Filipino Immigrants in Japan and Their Work of Care

Filipino care worker applicants being interviewed by JICWELS representatives, together with language interpreters.

Research Background

 This study focuses on the care work of Filipino immigrants in Japan. For this fieldwork I looked at the state-mediated immigration of Filipino nurses and care workers through the Japan-Philippines Economic Partnership Agreement (JPEPA) by observing their job fair applicant interviews conducted annually by the Japan International Corporation of Welfare Services (JICWELS) and the Philippine Overseas Employment Agency (POEA).

Research Purpose

 The research aims to contribute to the understanding of the globalization of care in Asia through the context of sending care workers and skilled health workers from the Philippines to Japan. This fieldwork aimed to understand the human resource acquisition process organized by the two governments, the motivations for hiring Filipino workers by Japanese welfare companies, and individual stories of the Filipino immigrants themselves.

Japanese welfare companies with their Filipino care worker employee conducting orientation to interested applicants.

Results

 From July 18 to 26, I observed the seven-day job fair and interview process of Filipino nursing and care worker applicants organized by the JICWELS and POEA in Crowne Plaza in Ortigas, Manila. The job fair included about 120 Japanese welfare companies and about 700 nursing and care worker applicants. These companies conducted marketing orientations about available work opportunities and what it is like to work in Japanese nursing homes. They also conducted informal interviews of applicants to get to know them personally for the employer-employee matching process—a two-way selection process that allows applicants to move forward in the recruitment process. Most companies have brought with them their Filipino employees who have also been recruited through the JPEPA, to assist in the orientation and question and answer session with the applicants.
 Meanwhile, the applicants also underwent video-recorded interviews with JICWELS, which were used as a basis for their selection in the program. Their backgrounds are very diverse; many have non-nursing and care work backgrounds and are willing to make a career shift to be able to work and earn in Japan. Out of the 700 applicants, only about 300 will be selected for deployment to Japan in June 2019. Common motivations for working in Japan include earning salaries higher than their current incomes in the Philippines to support their families, securing better work opportunities, and experiencing a new life, culture, and environment as immigrants. Despite opportunities available to them to work as care workers in other countries, preference for Japan is driven mainly by the country’s positive image among the applicants, such as safety, innovation, and technology, and high tourist appeal. Some of the applicants who have been to Japan have done so as language students and did arubaito as care workers, another strategy employed by NPOs and recruitment agencies in the Philippines and Japan to provide informal labor while circumventing the work immigration process.
 Toward the end of the fieldwork, I was able to meet with Mr. Takashi Tsunoda, Managing Director of JICWELS, and Rosemarie Duquez, Esq., Director of government placement at POEA. Follow-up fieldwork might be planned to see how the JPEPA process will change when more Filipino care workers are able to come to Japan as trainees through the Technical Internship Trainee Program (TITP), which began in September 2018.

Plans for Further Research

 The results of this fieldwork will be used for two research papers I will present at the International Conference on New Frontiers in Japanese Studies[1] at the University of Melbourne on September 17–19, and in the 2nd Kyoto University–Universitat Hamburg Symposium[2] at Kyoto University on October 9–11.
 For my next fieldwork, I will be observing Filipino care workers in their actual places of work in Japanese nursing homes in Kansai to see their interactions with elderly Japanese and with their co-workers. I plan to explore the dynamics of care work through the concept of bodies and intimacies, and how these are constructed and negotiated in the performance of care work as body work and intimate labor by non-Japanese careers.


[1] The research paper is titled “Filipino Migrant Care Workers in Japan: Transforming Intimacies and Caring Practices in Japanese Intimate Spaces.”
[2] The research paper is titled “Caring Bodies in Mobility: The Appropriation of the Caring Labors of Filipinos in Japanese Elderly Care Settings.”

  • レポート:Katrina Navallo(Year of enrollment: AY2019)
  • 派遣先国:Philippines
  • 渡航期間:July 15th, 2018 to July 31st, 2018
  • キーワード:Caring labor, immigrant care work, elderly care, intimate work, Filipino immigrants

関連するフィールドワーク・レポート

タナ・トラジャの棚田における耕作放棄の利用について 水牛飼料の草地に着目して

対象とする問題の概要  現在日本国内において、特に平野部が少なく生産効率性の低い中山間地域にて耕作放棄地の増加が問題となっている。中山間地域では山々の斜面上の棚田において米を生産することが多いが、その棚田の耕作放棄地化が増加している。耕作放…

オーストラリアにおけるブータン人コミュニティの形成と拡大――歴史的背景に着目して――

対象とする問題の概要  オーストラリアでは1970年代に白豪主義が撤廃されると、東アジア系、東南アジア系、南アジア系など移民の「アジア化」が進展してきた。またオーストラリアは移民政策として留学生の受け入れを積極的に行ってきた。特に1980年…

自然の守り人たち /ブータン王国・タシガン県の聖地をめぐる環境保護実践の人類学的研究

対象とする問題の概要  本研究は、ブータン王国タシガン県における神霊信仰とその聖域を対象としている。この土着信仰的要素を大いに含む神霊信仰は、儀礼や寺院を重要な媒介としながら、ブータンに限らずヒマーラヤ地域およびチベット仏教圏に広がっている…

コンゴ民主共和国の焼畑農耕民ボンガンドにおける環境認識/景観語彙の分類から

対象とする問題の概要   本研究の調査地であるワンバ周辺地域は、コンゴ民主共和国中部の熱帯雨林地帯に位置する。大型類人猿ボノボの生息地である当地域では、1970年代より日本の学術調査隊がボノボの野外調査を始め、現在までおよそ40年…

ナミビアにおける牧畜民ナマとその家畜との関係理解

対象とする問題の概要  ナミビアの南部には、「ナマ」という民族名で呼ばれている人々が多く生活している。彼/女らは少なくとも17世紀から現在のナミビア国内の広い範囲で牧畜を生業とする生活を送っていたが、主にドイツ統治期の植民地政策と南アフリカ…

ラオスの小規模輸送を可能にする長距離バス――家族経営の公共交通機関――

対象とする問題の概要  東南アジアの内陸国であるラオスは、山岳地帯が国土の多くを占めている。道路輸送が全モードの輸送量のうち大半を占めるにもかかわらず、道路の舗装率は周辺国に比べて低い。時間と費用共に輸送コストが高く、大規模なサプライチェー…