京都大学大学院アジア・アフリカ地域研究研究科 COSER Center for On-Site Education and Research 附属次世代型アジア・アフリカ教育研究センター

Can tourism be a sustainable livelihood diversification option? A case study of South Omo Zone, Ethiopia

Photo Exhibition, Jinka University, August 2019

Research background

  As part of a follow-up of a comparative case study to assess the significance of cultural tourism on the livelihood of local people at destinations, I conducted fieldwork from 31 July to 30 September 2019. Fieldwork has been taking place since 2017 in South Ari woreda (a peri-urban village) and in Salamago woreda (Mursi villages in the Lower Omo Valley of Southwestern Ethiopia).
  During this research period, the plan was to carry out three main tasks. The first task was to consolidate the outcome of the research undertaken so far. The second task was to undertake a quantitative subjective wellbeing/quality of life survey on the perception of local people engaged in cultural tourism in the two research sites, based on a Likert-scale questionnaire survey. The third task was to hold an exhibition to display a participatory photo and video footage done by the research participants using Visual Research Methodology (VRM).

Research purpose

  The objective of this research was to assess the significance of cultural tourism on the livelihood of the local people from their perspective.

Photo taken by a VRM participant, Ms Narugo Chagnoyeale, 2019


1. One of the areas of focus of the research was to identify what drives local people to choose their livelihood strategies, in this case, cultural tourism as a diversification strategy. So far, one main factor that the local people reported at both research sites indicates that their livelihood vulnerabilities drive them to opt for alternative opportunities to earn cash in order to close the gap. In both cases, vulnerability factors are from external shocks (such as rainfall vulnerability) that expose local people to drought and pest infestation, as well as internal stressors that are related to pre-existing socio-economic stressors (Chambers, 1989). As a result, it was found that much of the cash earned from cultural tourism at both sites is spent on foodstuffs. In Mursi, which is an agro-pastoral community, 57% of the 37 people interviewed said that they used the cash they earned from tourism to purchase grain and 27% said they used it for medical purposes. In the peri-urban South Ari village interviews with all households engaged in a local cultural tourism initiative (11 households), 90% said they used the cash earned from cultural tourism to buy foodstuffs.

2. As planned, 100 respondents from both research sites participated in a Likert-scale survey to find out the perceptions of the local people on subjective wellbeing (quality of life) in order to determine the effect of cultural tourism on the local people’s wellbeing. Thirteen questionnaires were categorised into four life-satisfaction domains based on Cummings’ (1997) life satisfaction categories: Material Wellbeing, Community Wellbeing, Emotional Wellbeing, and Health and Safety Wellbeing.
  Results: The responses were based on a five-point scale (1 to 5) as follows: (1) Very Dissatisfied, (2) Dissatisfied, (3) Medium, (4) Satisfied, and (5) Very Satisfied. The respondents from the peri-urban village in South Ari woreda showed an average of overall life satisfaction of 2.9, compared to an average of 4.1 in Mursi. This means that the local people in the peri-urban South Ari village indicated less satisfaction (within the range of ‘dissatisfied’), and the local people in Mursiland indicated satisfaction (within the range of ‘satisfied’). Between categories, the village in South Ari revealed the lowest satisfaction, with an average of 2.2 under ‘material wellbeing’, which comprises basic needs (food, shelter, and clothing) satisfaction, as well as the satisfaction with income received from tourism. Similarly, for Mursi, the lowest satisfaction was on their material wellbeing, but with an average of 3.9. This result is consistent with the interviews, where local people revealed that due to the vulnerability in their livelihood, cash from tourism was a means to close the gap. Moreover, they could not ignore the amount received, albeit meagre, as it helped them to meet their daily needs.

3. Nine photographers from both research sites exhibited the result of their participatory photo and video footage based on VRM. The exhibition ‘Through the Eyes Gazed’ took place at Jinka University on 30 August 2019. Only three photographers attended because of the security in Mursi, and 73 people from relevant governmental bodies and institutions, such as the Zonal Administration, the staff of the Zonal Tourism Office, University staff, and the local guide association, attended the event. A photo book was also prepared.

Plans for further research

  The next step will be to work on my final thesis based on the data gathered so far.


【1】Chambers, R. and Conway, G. 1992. Sustainable rural livelihoods: practical concepts for the 21st century. IDS discussion paper, 296. Brighton: IDS.
【2】Cummins, R. A. 1997. The domain of life satisfaction: an attempt to order chaos. Social Indicator Research, 38, 303-328

  • レポート:Azeb Girmai(Year of enrollment: AY2017)
  • 派遣先国:Ethiopia
  • 渡航期間: July 31st, 2019 - September 18th, 2019
  • キーワード:Cultural Tourism, Vulnerability, Visual Research Methodology


小笠原諸島におけるアオウミガメの保全と 伝統的利用の両立可能性に関する研究

研究全体の概要  アオウミガメ(Chelonia Mydas)は大洋州の多くの地域において食用として伝統的に利用されてきた(Kinan and Dalzell, 2005)。一方で、本種はワシントン条約附属書Iに記載される絶滅危惧種(EN、…

2018年度 成果出版

2018年度のフィールドワーク・レポートを編集いたしました。PDF版になります。 書名『臨地 2018』院⽣海外臨地調査報告書ISBN:978-4-905518-27-3 発⾏者京都⼤学⼤学院アジア・アフリカ地域研究研究科附属次世代型アジア…


対象とする問題の概要  マダガスカル共和国の中央高原地帯(メリナ人居住地域)および西部地域(サカラヴァ人居住地域)においては近年、在来信仰のドゥアニと呼ばれる聖地が、国内外から多くの巡礼者を集めている。特に中央高原地帯では巡礼者の増加に伴っ…


対象とする問題の概要  ナミビアの南部には、「ナマ」という民族名で呼ばれている人々が多く生活している。彼/女らは少なくとも17世紀から現在のナミビア国内の広い範囲で牧畜を生業とする生活を送っていたが、主にドイツ統治期の植民地政策と南アフリカ…


対象とする問題の概要  ミャンマーの森林は減少・劣化の一途をたどっており、特に森林減少・劣化が激しい地域における森林保全対策の検討が喫緊の課題となっている。本研究では、下記の点に着目し、保全対策立案にむけて課題に取り組む。 1. 特に森林減…


対象とする問題の概要  これまでインド政府は貧困問題を解決するために様々な政策を実施してきた。その成果はある程度認められるものの、依然として多くの貧困層を抱えており、貧困削減はインド社会において重大な社会問題として位置づけられている。なかで…