京都大学大学院アジア・アフリカ地域研究研究科 COSER Center for On-Site Education and Research 附属次世代型アジア・アフリカ教育研究センター
京都大学大学院アジア・アフリカ地域研究研究科
フィールドワーク・レポート

Acacia catechu Forests and Cutch Production in Saw Township, Magway Region, Myanmar

Vegetation Survey, Measuring the Seedlings, Saplings and Trees

Research Background

 Cutch is one of the non-wood forest products extracted from the heartwood of the Acacia catechu trees and it has been used since the ancient Myanmar dynasty. For its various medicinal and other purposes, cutch was a forest product in great domestic and foreign demand in Myanmar. Under colonial rule the trade expanded rapidly and by the late 1860s officials were reporting widespread deforestation in accessible forests. (Bryant, L.B., 1997) The forest department of Myanmar, therefore, started to manage Acacia catechu forests and regulate the cutch production since colonial time. However, the technical and socio-economic aspects of cutch production is not known well and the studies on Acacia catechu forests are still rare. For this study, Saw township, Magway Region, Myanmar was selected where there are many Acacia catechu forests and many cutch producers. Saw township is one of the areas where there is the longest history and the largest production in cutch.

Research Purpose

 The main purpose of the study is to study about the Acacia catechu forests and to know how the cutch is traditionally and technically processed in Saw township, Magway Region, Myanmar. The study also aims to access the socio-economic conditions of the local people who engaged in the cutch production. By considering the role of ecological and economic importance of cutch, the ultimate goal of the study leads to the sustainable production of forest products.

A Private Cutch Plantation Established in 2011 by a Local Producer

Results

 After conducting the vegetation survey in 20 circular sample plots in 4 compartments which belongs to two reserved forests, the total number of species were found to be 80 species including Acacia catechu trees. Vegetation was measured based on the three categories; trees which are equal or above 20 cm in (GBH)girth at breast height; saplings which are between 7 cm and 19cm in GBH; seedlings which are less than 7cm in GBH.   
 Focusing on the correlation between girth at breast height and height of Acacia catechu trees, the structure of Acacia catechu forest was analyzed. The stumps below the minimum girth (GBH 90cm) might be immature trees cut by the local people for charcoal making or fuelwood. Many of the seedlings were found as dieback because annual surface forest fire seems to increase the seedlings mortality, hindering the natural regeneration of Acacia catechu forests. It was observed that private Acacia catechu plantations were being established. Cutch is produced during the winter months because in the summer time, the air temperature hinders the cooling process. Water availability is very important. The streamlets play a pivotal role in giving clean water used in cutch processing.
 The field survey gave me the chance to getting to know both the local conditions and forest conditions where Acacia catechu trees grow and to know the economic importance of non-wood forest products to the local people in the study area. Data obtained from the field survey could be beneficial to the sustainable cutch production.

Plans for Further Research

 The field survey was an initial step for the second field trip which will place emphasis on the local technical processing of cutch products from Acacia catechu trees and the socio-economic conditions of the producers.

  • レポート:Wai Phyoe Maung(Year of enrollment: AY2018)
  • 派遣先国:Myanmar
  • 渡航期間:August 3rd, 2018 to September 25th, 2018
  • キーワード:Acacia catechu Forests, Cutch Production

関連するフィールドワーク・レポート

クルアーン学校を「近代化」するとはどういうことか/カメルーン・ヤウンデの事例

対象とする問題の概要  カメルーンを含む西アフリカのムスリムたちは、こどもたちにクルアーンの読み方や初歩的なイスラームの知識を教える、クルアーン学校(coranic schools)と呼ばれる組織をもっている。クルアーン学校は、ムスリムたち…

インドネシア・カリマンタンにおける森林保護の動向 /複数ステイクホルダーによる活動から

対象とする問題の概要  2019年9月の国連気候変動サミットにおいて、スウェーデンの環境活動家グレタ・トゥーンベリが環境問題に対する力強いスピーチが話題となった。彼女以前にも気候変動に対する警鐘は長きにわたってならされたはずであるが、この問…

インドネシア・リアウ州における泥炭火災の特徴とその発生要因の解明

対象とする問題の概要  インドネシアでは泥炭地で起きる「泥炭火災」が深刻な問題となっている。泥炭火災とは、泥炭地で起きる火災である。泥炭地は湿地内で倒木した木が水中でほぼ分解されず、そのまま土壌に蓄えられた土地であり、大量の有機物が蓄えられ…

ウガンダ南西部の人口稠密地域における異常気象による土壌浸食と農家の対応

対象とする問題の概要  ウガンダの人口は3400万人で、2014年までの10年間における人口増加率は3.03%と高い [UBOS 2014]。人口の急速な増加は1人あたりの農地面積の狭小化と作物生産の減少をすすめ、食料不足が発生することも懸…

ザンビア都市部におけるワイヤーおもちゃの製造と廃材および固形廃棄物の利用

対象とする問題の概要  本稿は、ザンビア都市部の家内工業によるワイヤーおもちゃの製造と廃材の利用に関する調査報告である。ワイヤーおもちゃ(Wire toys)とは、銅、スチール、アルミなどの金属製のワイヤーを用いて乗物、動物、生活用品などの…