京都大学大学院アジア・アフリカ地域研究研究科 COSER Center for On-Site Education and Research 附属次世代型アジア・アフリカ教育研究センター
京都大学大学院アジア・アフリカ地域研究研究科
フィールドワーク・レポート

Oolong Industry in Vietnam: Focusing on Its Linkage with Taiwan

Daily operation of tea harvesting group of Haiyih Co.
(Dalat, 2018/10/25)

Research Background

 The foreigner direct investment (FDI) in farmland of tropical area is not a news, especially large-scale FDI on food crops and cash crops (Olivier, 2011). It’s reason, expansion process and result have arisen public concern since 1980s, especially the potential opportunity and risk which brought by the mega-scale plantation of FDI to investment destination. While little attention has been paid on moderate and small-scale (MSS) FDI.

Research Purpose

 The purpose of this survey was to get general information about the background of oolong industry transfer from Taiwan and the livelihood change of local Vietnamese involved into oolong company as a case of MSS FDI.

Consultative conference of Taiwanese oolong company
with local fresh tea leave growers (Dalat, 2018/10/06)

Results

 Though the survey, the information about the transfer history background and process of oolong industry from Taiwan(TW) to Vietnam(VN) was gotten. Besides, the structure of oolong companies, the daily operation and the industry chain were also clarified.
(1) How oolong industry was chosen
 From 1986 to 1995, TW investor whose previous jobs might not related to agriculture, firstly entered into VN by multi promotion factors, like Southbound policy, cheap land and labor, TW investors went southeast Asia, China to invest multi industry.
In agriculture field, they had ever tried to plant some special fruits (dragon-fruit, passion fruit), flowers (orchids, chrysanthemum) and tea (oolong, black tea and green tea) in VN and aimed to explore both TW and VN market. But only oolong tea got success.
(2) Industry transfer process:
 Time period: the TW investment activities could be divided into 3 periods, before 1986, 1986-2000, and after 2000.
 Land: Before 1986, land was owned by nation, so few Taiwanese could enter VN to invested unless they became Vietnamese. After 1986, the Doi Moi (economic reforms activities of VN government) and the encouragement policy of cultivate wasteland, land trade was opened to both Vietnamese and foreigner. After 2003, most of the large-scale wasteland had already owned or occupied, so the later comers had to rent (foreigners) or buy (VN) land with high price from government or from local land owner.
 Labor: Before 1986, only ethnic inhabitant and few Kinh people (the majority of Vietnamese) lived in Lam Dong, so Taiwanese hired Kinh people who were believed to be good learner and good follower compared with ethnic group, from north and south-central coast provinces. Most of these Kinh people then settled down and bought their own plots on nearby area to build house and plant crops. They became new residents. After 2003, the requirements of new residents on payments was higher, so the TW started to hire ethnic groups in Lam Dong and in nearby province.
 Equipment: Before 2003, all the raw materials, like seedings, production equipment, chemicals were controlled by TW. But after 2003, Vietnamese started to join oolong industry and operate oolong companies by themselves.
Technology: Until now, the key structure and quality control (chemical usage and operation methods) principles were followed TW standard, but there were few tea experts from TW.
(3) Technology flow in daily operation
 Only trader, owner and experts acquired the techniques and knowledge of the whole operation process, mostly group leaders and workers only knew the specific actions of their tasks.

Plans for Further Research

Time Target
Whole November Summarize field memo, and figure out research structure
Whole December- 15th February Reading articles, adjust research structure, attend Vietnamese course, making new field survey plan for next time
16th February – March Field survey for 1.5 month

 

  • レポート:Wu Yunxi(Year of enrollment: AY2018)
  • 派遣先国:Vietnam
  • 渡航期間:August 13th, 2018 to November 1st, 2018
  • キーワード:oolong tea industry, small peasants, foreigner direct investment

関連するフィールドワーク・レポート

ラオスにおける野生ランの利用と自生環境 /薬用・観賞用としての着生ランの保全を目的として

対象とする問題の概要  ラン科植物は中国では古くから糖尿病や高血圧等に効く薬用植物として珍重されているほか、ラオスやタイ、ベトナムをはじめとし、世界的に様々な品種が愛好家によって交配され、高値で取引されることもある。このような様々な需要が存…

カメルーン熱帯雨林の狩猟と精神的影響ー宮崎県串間市のイノシシ猟の事例ー

研究全体の概要  カメルーン熱帯雨林に住むバカピグミーは狩猟採集を営む人々である。彼らにとって狩猟という行為は生活の手段としてだけでなく個々人の精神世界や文化形成において欠くことのできない要素として認識できる。近年では定住化や貨幣経済の影響…

木材生産を目的とする農林複合の可能性 /タンザニア東北部アマニ地域を事例に

対象とする問題の概要  アフリカ諸国では、高い経済成長を遂げたことで、人口が急激に増加している。家屋を建てた後に人々が求めるものは、ベッドやソファなどの家具であり、その材料には耐久性の優れた天然の広葉樹が用いられてきた。しかし、天然林への伐…

ミャンマー・シャン州南部の農業システムにおけるヤマチャ利用

対象とする問題の概要  東南アジア大陸部山地では急激な森林減少が観測されており、原因の一つとして農地の拡大が指摘されている。ゴム等の大規模プランテーションや換金作物の集約的栽培は、森林破壊だけでなく、不安定な価格に伴う経済的リスクの増大等、…

ソロモン諸島国サンタクルーズ諸島における人と生態系の関係

対象とする問題の概要  ソロモン諸島国サンタクルーズ諸島は同国テモツ州に属し、最東部に位置する島嶼群を指す。本研究はサンタクルーズ諸島のうち、域外ポリネシア[1](Polynesian outliers)の二つの島を調査地として選定した。第…